Integral Equations and Machine Learning
As both light transport simulation and reinforcement learning are ruled by the same Fredholm integral equation of the second kind, reinforcement learning techniques may be used for photorealistic image synthesis: Efficiency may be dramatically improved by guiding light transport paths by an approximate so- lution of the integral equation that is learned during rendering. In the light of the recent advances in reinforcement learning for playing games, we investigate the representation of an approximate solution of an integral equation by artifi- cial neural networks and derive a loss function for that purpose. The resulting Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods train neural networks with stan- dard information instead of linear information and naturally are able to generate an arbitrary number of training samples. The methods are demonstrated for applications in light transport simulation.