Post-Render Warp with Late Input Sampling Improves Aiming Under High Latency Conditions
End-to-end latency in remote-rendering systems can reduce user task performance. This notably includes aiming tasks on game streaming services, which are presently below the standards of competitive first-person desktop gaming. We evaluate the latency-induced penalty on task completion time in a controlled environment and show that it can be significantly mitigated by adopting and modifying image and simulation-warping techniques from virtual reality, eliminating up to 80\% of the penalty from 80 ms of added latency. This has potential to enable remote rendering for esports and increase the effectiveness of remote-rendered content creation and robotic teleoperation. We provide full experimental methodology, analysis, implementation details, and source code.
Copyright by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Publications Dept, ACM Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481, or firstname.lastname@example.org. The definitive version of this paper can be found at ACM's Digital Library http://www.acm.org/dl/.