Weakly-Supervised Physically Unconstrained Gaze Estimation
A major challenge for physically unconstrained gaze estimation is acquiring training data with 3D gaze annotations for in-the-wild and outdoor scenarios. In contrast, videos of human interactions in unconstrained environments are abundantly available and can be much more easily annotated with frame-level activity labels. In this work, we tackle the previously unexplored problem of weakly-supervised gaze estimation from videos of human interactions. We leverage the insight that strong gaze-related geometric constraints exist when people perform the activity of "looking at each other" (LAEO). To acquire viable 3D gaze supervision from LAEO labels, we propose a training algorithm along with several novel loss functions especially designed for the task. With weak supervision from two large scale CMU-Panoptic and AVA-LAEO activity datasets, we show significant improvements in (a) the accuracy of semi-supervised gaze estimation and (b) cross-domain generalization on the state-of-the-art physically unconstrained in-the-wild Gaze360 gaze estimation benchmark. We open source our code at https://github.com/NVlabs/weakly-supervised-gaze.
This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to email@example.com.