Physics-Informed Optical Kernel Regression Using Complex-valued Neural Fields
Lithography is fundamental to integrated circuit fabrication, necessitating large computation overhead. The advancement of machine learning (ML)-based lithography models alleviates the trade-offs between manufacturing process expense and capability. However, all previous methods regard the lithography system as an image-to-image black box mapping, utilizing network parameters to learn by rote mappings from massive mask-to-aerial or mask-to-resist image pairs, resulting in poor generalization capability. In this paper, we propose a new ML-based paradigm disassembling the rigorous lithographic model into non-parametric mask operations and learned optical kernels containing determinant source, pupil, and lithography information. By optimizing complex-valued neural fields to perform optical kernel regression from coordinates, our method can accurately restore lithography system using a small-scale training dataset with fewer parameters, demonstrating superior generalization capability as well. Experiments show that our framework can use 31% of parameters while achieving 69× smaller mean squared error with 1.3× higher throughput than the state-of-the-art.